Author Archives: mha

Melungeons Explore Mysterious Heritage at Local Gathering– Asheville CItizen-Times

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The first local publicity for 19th Union has appeared in the Asheville Citizen-Times this week.  The opening sentences are:

The dark-skinned mountaineers whose origins are shrouded in mystery will be returning to Asheville next month.

The Melungeon Heritage Association will hold its 19th annual meeting at Warren Wilson College in Swannanoa June 26 and 27.

The Melungeons are a group of mixed ethnic ancestry first documented in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Similar groups of “mysterious” people, or at least remnants of these groups, are found all along the Atlantic seaboard. Anthropologists called them “racial islands” or “tri-racial isolates.”

See the rest of the article at:

http://www.citizen-times.com/story/news/local/2015/05/20/melungeons…

“The Melungeons Got Me!– and I Couldn’t Have Been More Tickled!

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The Melungeons Got Me!—and I Couldn’t Have Been More Tickled!

By Linda Ladd Townsend

I attended the 18th Union: A Melungeon Gathering, (June, 2014), and felt instantly included. I am writing this summary to encourage other newbies to attend a Union, to answer the question of “What happens at a Union gathering?” and also to say “Thank You!” to the old timers, who helped me to feel so welcome.

My experience started on Friday on a meandering trail into the heart of Melungeon country–Vardy, TN. Anyone who has read anything about Melungeons on the internet knows about Vardy, Newman’s Ridge, Blackwater and Big Haley (who is said to have weighed many hundreds of pounds), and her moonshine cabin. But to actually experience the effort of getting into this area, even today, makes one appreciate the remote, primitive life of the early Melungeons. Good luck finding Vardy on a map or even your GPS at times. Sometimes it comes up in Sneedville, TN and other times around Blackwater, VA. Be sure and load it into your GPS before heading out of your internet connection, as you will not be able to access it as you travel away from civilization. The sayings that “you can’t get there from here” and “you need to get lost to find the place” begin to play on your mind. Without a doubt, the trip proved to be a magnificent adventure. Keep in mind that you left the interstate a long time ago, and just about the time your spouse starts whining that you must be lost and wants to just give up and go back—just recalibrate your time frame—you are on Melungeon time and are probably just about half-way there. Get yourself into a Melungeon state of mind and allow a lot of time to take it all in and enjoy yourself, rather than stressing over why you aren’t there yet. One high point is the sheer beauty of the area, lush and green, with Tiger Lilies growing wild along the sometimes gravel road. High ridge roads give views into patchwork-quilt panoramas of valley fields and homes. This puts a face to the expression “back in them thar Hills and Hollers.” In regard to visiting Vardy, the experience includes both getting there and the destination.

When you arrive it will look just like on the internet, except on a very grand scale. It is hard to take a picture that will do justice to the size of Newman’s Ridge and the beauty of Vardy Valley. No wonder some people lived together rather than getting married—it was just too darn far into town to get legal. Except for the need for work and education, due to the sheer beauty of life here, who would really want to leave? I have already returned many times in my mind’s eye, when I want to go on a mini-vacation to a peaceful place.

The real face, as well as heart and soul, of Vardy is DruAnna Williams Overbay of the Vardy Community Historical Society. The home where she was born is just a stone’s throw from the church. She went above and beyond to show us every detail of the museum church, complete with a model of the school that was built by the early Presbyterians. She described the early times in Vardy Valley from the late 1800’s to the 1950’s, where the well-educated teachers devoted their lives to teaching the children, who would otherwise have been “lost in the woods” in regard to higher learning. The biggest surprise was to learn how well educated the Vardy School children became, many receiving college degrees. Much love is evident in the preservation of the Presbyterian Church and Museum and the contribution of a donation is willingly given and much needed to keep the lights on and the AC running. You might not return, but someone else researching their heritage will make the pilgrimage, and you want it to still be there for them. It is definitely a touchstone and epicenter of the Melungeon heritage in the area.

Across the road from the church, what a treat it was to see the lovingly restored Mahalia Mullins cabin; the place where Big Haley raised her many children, cooked her brew, had fine dishes and furniture, and died, requiring the destruction of a wall to remove the large coffin that was constructed from her bed for her burial. There are restroom facilities, but bring your own food and drinks; or you could sign up in advance for the box lunch offered for $5. Gas up before you leave to come, as there are no services in Vardy.

We also viewed the documentary The Melungeons of Vardy Valley; a beautifully created intimate view of the history, the people and the current excitement, and sometimes the ambivalence, of researching one’s Melungeon roots. The music combined with the artistic graphics serves to enhance the experience of being drawn into the heart of the heritage of the Melungeons. Anyone with any interest in Melungeons needs to put a visit to Vardy on their Bucket List, and if DruAnna’s gracious hospitality greets you, expect to have a deep sense of “coming home.”

Friday night was a social time at Mountain Empire Community College at Big Stone Gap, VA. Food was provided and it was easy to mingle with the “old timers,” the authors and presenters. I found out later that the lady who came up to me and said “Glad to see another redhead,” was S J Arthur, the president of the last few years. Brent Kennedy was there; my beginning knowledge of Melungeons came from him. Arwin Smallwood gave me more information in a few minutes than I could have found in a lifetime on the internet, just while we sat at the same table eating dinner. I quickly found that this group consists of a highly educated group of professionals with a passion for all things Melungeon, and are willing and eager to share their knowledge; along with others like me, who are everyday people just beginning to search their Melungeon roots. One man had just joined the week before and had traveled from Arkansas. Seeking Melungeon roots makes people do strange and wonderful things.

Saturday was a full day of presentations by experts, many with PhD level research. Where else can you sit at the feet of the masters for about $10 for the whole day? Topics covered included DNA testing, Jewish and Arab roots, Spiritualism, and the definitive answer to “What happened to the lost colony? Another lady, who was raised in Michigan, reported how she gradually discovered her Melungeon heritage and developed her cultural identity. Utilizing the interviews of actual Melungeons, a research project was presented outlining the results of examining the ethnic identify development process and life experiences of the Melungeons, particularly the impact of social dynamics on self-identification. This is only a small sampling of the materials presented, but it gives an idea as to the depth of the presentations.

A complete book store was available and many of the authors were present to sign my copies. Stacy Mae Webb, author and owner of Backintyme book publishers, was present. She happens to live in the area where I was raised in west KY and offered to help with my brick wall. (It appears that my Shepherd line from Christian Co, KY may have roots back to the Sappony Indians from Person Co, N. Carolina and may even go back to the Lost Colony). I got to meet Paul Johnson, Treasurer, who had been so helpful in getting me registered as a member of the Association. He had also quickly answered my initial query with very helpful information; all within a day or so of my posting.

A business meeting was held where the memory of a cornerstone member Johnnie Gibson Rhea was honored and Melungeon oriented door prizes were awarded to most in attendance. A partnership between the Association and the community college was celebrated, securing a repository for the history of the Association and a place of study for future seekers. Although this was my first attendance at a Union, I felt very welcomed by those who had been to every one.

According to folklore, parents used to frighten their children into obedience by threatening them that if they strayed from the path they were told to follow, the Melungeons would get them. In other areas of the country, this threat could have been called the boogeyman. So to anyone considering attending future Unions, I highly recommend the effort; dive in head first, the water is fine. But be fully warned–“The Melungeons just might get you–like they did me–and delightfully you will never be the same!”

MECC Announces Donations, Creation of Center for Melungeon Research

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This exciting news was a highlight of the closing portion of 18th Union in Big Stone Gap, a true milestone moment for Melungeon studies.  The MECC announcement opens with these words:

Big Stone Gap, VA — Mountain Empire Community College is pleased to announce three major donations that will establish the college as a major center for the collection of Melungeon research materials.

The Melungeon Heritage Association (MHA) announced plans to donate copies of all of the organization’s publications, videos and audios of presenters recorded during the last 17 years of Melungeon Union Gatherings, as well as all organizational paperwork collected since the organization’s formation. In addition, the college will receive the organization’s collection of memorabilia from past Melungeon Unions. 

Further excellent news is found in the rest of the announcement here.

18th Union Announcement

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The 18th Melungeon Union will be held June 27th and 28th in Vardy, Tennessee and Big Stone Gap, Virginia. The Vardy Community Historical Society invites MHA members and the public to a celebration on Friday, June 27th at its historical museum in the former Vardy church, and the nearby restored Mullins cabin.  Festivities will begin at 10 am.  On Saturday, June 28th, the Melungeon Heritage Association will sponsor a day of programs at Mountain Empire Community College in Big Stone Gap, including five author presentations and a members meeting.

One highlight of the Vardy presentations will be a showing of the 2013 documentary THE MELUNGEONS OF VARDY VALLEY  directed by Ian Cheney and co-produced by Marilyn Cheney and Todd Beckham. Beckham will be present to speak on the making of the film, which follows the quest of Troy Williams to understand his Melungeon heritage through DNA testing, with mixed reactions from family members. With an original soundtrack, black-and-white watercolor graphics and HD cinematography from the ridges and hollows of north-east Tennessee, the film is an intimate portrait of community, ancestry, and family.

A full day of activities  begins Saturday morning at 9 am at the Goodloe Center, Mountain Empire Community College (see map at link and directions below). Five scholarly presentations will address Melungeon history and identity from a variety of perspectives. Laura Tugman,Ph.D. will discuss her doctoral dissertation for Fielding Graduate University, “Seeking Roots in Shifting Ground: Ethnic Identity Development and the Melungeons of Appalachia.”  Nancy Gray Schoonmaker, Ph.D, will tell the intriguing story of “Abijah Alley of Long Hollow,” subject of a chapter in a forthcoming collection Con Artists, Enthusiasts, and True Believers. Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman, Ph.D.will explain DNA testing and Melungeon ancestry. Arwin Smallwood, Ph.D., now head of the history department at North Carolina A&T University, will describe ongoing reseach on mixed ancestry communities of North Carolina.  Tammy Stachowicz, Ph.D. will discuss her 2013 dissertation for Antioch University on the Melungeon movement.

There is no charge for the Vardy activities, but we encourage donations of $5 to support the work of VCHS.  Box lunches will be available for $5, but need to be reserved a week in advance. (No need to pay in advance but inform us in advance if you wish to have a box lunch, at kpj24112@gmail.com.) A “meet the authors” reception will he held at Goodloe Center, MECC, from 6 to 7:30 Friday evening, registration required but free of charge and open to the public. Books about Melungeons and related topics will be for sale, and many authors will be present, further details to be announced soon.

Registration for the Saturday conference is $10, waived for all college and high school students, and also for faculty and staff of MECC. Preregistration is encouraged but not required. Members may join by mail, sending  a membership form to MHA at P.O. Box 3604, Martinsville, VA 24115 with a check or money order for $12 dues.  They may also pay dues through Paypal (see BUY NOW button) and email their membership forms to kpj24112@gmail.com.

A special $79.90 rate for 18th Union conferees is available at the Holiday Inn, Norton, VA  and we encourage those needing overnight accommodations to reserve their rooms as soon as possible. When calling the Holiday Inn reservations number 1-877-410-6667 at the above link, mention MHA and the Melungeon gathering to get the group rate. Address: 1051 Park Ave NW, Norton, VA 24273 Phone:(276) 679-6655.

Driving Directions 

Mountain Empire Community College is located on U.S. Highway 23 South in Wise County, in the southwestern tip of Virginia between Kentucky and Tennessee. MECC’s address is 3441 Mountain Empire Road, Big Stone Gap, VA 24219.

COMING FROM THE NORTH
MECC is located on the right just past the second Big Stone Gap, Virginia exit (there are only two Big Stone Gap exits), on southbound US Highway 23.

COMING FROM THE SOUTH 
MECC is located roughly 12.5 miles north of Duffield, Virginia, situated on the left as you drive north on US Highway 23.

A registration form for 18th Union is attached, followed by an MHA membership application, for those interested in attending.

Registration18th Union.txt

Membership.odt

Congratulations to Arwin D. Smallwood, Ph.D., on his return to North Carolina

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MHA congratulates Professor Smallwood, formerly of the University of Memphis, for his return to his home state as head of theHistory Department of North Carolina A & T State University in Greensboro. Although the scope of Dr. Smallwood’s research is international, his specialized knowledge of eastern North Carolina has been the highlight of presentations at Melungeon Unions since 2009. As department head at a historically Black university in North Carolina, he brings unique expertise to make the state’s multiracial heritage better understood in coming generations.

Johnnie’s Story, by Johnnie Clyde Gibson Rhea

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Johnnie’s Story

By Johnnie Clyde Gibson Rhea

On May 23, 1931, I was born in Virginia to John and Martha Goins Gibson.  My grandparents were Andy and Emily Long Gibson and Alex and Merky Collins Goins.  I have researched back to my 6th grandparents.

My parents owned one car back in the late 30’s.  They never had another one so we did a lot of walking.

I was raised on Blackwater and Newman’s Ridge.  We never owned a tractor; it was a red mule!  I went to school at Elm Springs, Vardy, Sneedville and Howard Quarter School; never got through the 7th grade.

I washed on a washboard and cooked on a woodstove.  I sawed wood to cook with and to keep warm.  I washed by a spring and carried water because we never had running water in the house or an inside toilet.  I plowed with a mule, I turned ground, I shocked hay, worked on strawstacks, threshed wheat, cut corn, and pulled fodder corn.  I made my toys out of corn stalk.  I walked to school 2 miles there and back and was picked up by a truck for 4 miles there and back, to go to school.  I used a cut of saw to cut wood for wood to sell.  My games at night were by a coal oil lamp where we played Hully Gully with parched corn.  I took a bath in an old wash tub on Saturday night.  We had an old victrola with a Carter Family record.  We finally got a Sears Roebuck radio run by a battery that lasted three months.  We never had a store bought sled or wagon, but would go to the woods and make  our sled and wagon from wood.  We lived in the woods, and never learned to climb a tree or swing on a grapevine.  I had to pull weeds for the hogs to eat.  We had two hogs killed in the fall and two cows gave milk and butter.  All we bought from the store was a little coffee, salt and sugar.  Taking history back, we grew our own corn and wheat for making our flour for bread, made molasses and maple syrup. To dye our clothes, we used walnuts, rye or goldenrod.  We had to spin our wool from sheep.  We made our quilts out of worn clothes to keep warm.  We lived in a house that when it came a snow we would wake up with snow on our bed.  We  had chickens to kill and eat, and sold eggs. You made your own food to eat in the winter out of the garden, berries and apples; we dried our beans or we would go hungry.  I can say I never went to bed hungry or went naked.

I had good parents that provided for me.  I am thankful for that.  We didn’t have anything fancy.  We just had a phone, old rough stuff to eat, didn’t go to the store for food.  We didn’t have any electricity.  We had a spring where we put milk and butter we made.  Three times a day we brought it to the table and took it back to the spring.  The spring was our refrigeration.

So—I was that Melungeon, raised up poor and hard, still Melungeon made and proud to be one, too!

Johnnie  (Johnnie Clyde Gibson Rhea)

This was shared by a friend of Johnnie on the occasion of her passing. She was the heart and soul of Melungeon Unions so it is being posted in the Unions section of the forum-ed

Tributes to Johnnie Rhea from members and friends of MHA

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For all of us involved in Melungeon research, the loss of Johnnie Rhea is like the closing of a library.  She was my mentor and my greatest supporter in the search for my own Collins family roots.  Johnnie had incredible knowledge and an encyclopedic memory of the genealogy of East Tennessee families along with a willingness to freely share that knowledge with others.  But most of all Johnnie was a person of impeccable character who brought great joy into the lives of those of us who shared a friendship with her.  Sue and I certainly feel blessed to have been among the friends of Johnnie Rhea.

 
Phil and Sue Collins

 

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Johnnie Gibson Rhea was the heart and soul of Melungeon Unions for the years I’ve attended, and her absence will be keenly felt by all members and friends of MHA. Just seeing Johnnie at the beginning of a Union lifted our spirits, and her Saturday afternoon sessions made a wonderful grand finale as she shared her memories and her handmade crafts.  There may have been disputes involving other prominent figures in the Melungeon movement, but EVERYONE loved Johnnie and that is indisputable. Her loving, generous presence will be long remembered by friends throughout the United States.

Paul Johnson

Johnnie Rhea was just a special lady!!!  I only met her for the first time in 2009 in Logan, but so looked forward to seeing her every year there after!!!

Last year when she told all of us that it would be her last Union I was heartbroken… BUT it won’t be her last Union because from now on she will be there with all of us – even if by Spirit…  looking down on all that we do and say and I just hope and pray that we can continue to ‘make her proud’ of our Melungeon Heritage Association group.

RIP dear Johnnie…

all my love, Lynda

from Gloria Gibson Sullivan,
My sister Dawn Gibson and I first met Johnnie in 2010 in Vardy.  We both were met with open arms by both Johnnie Rhea and Claude Collins outside Mahala Mullins cabin.  The 1st question we were asked was “so what Gibson line are you from?”  It took a minute for me to pull out my papers and then Johnnie and I sat in the church while she poured over the names…she finally said “you know I don’t think I know your line of Gibson’s”.  I was heartbroken.  My husband and I then saw her again at the MHA conference in Big Stone Gap and then again in Wytheville and at the hotel it was she who said “I know you from the visit in Vardy”…I almost cryed.  She wanted those papers that I had showed her before and I handed them right over.  She will live in my heart as the most gracious person and an example of thoughtfulness.
2 pictures attached

When I think of Johnnie I remember most of all her smile. And, the words genuine, generous, accepting, and trustworthy come to mind. I remember her donation of quilts and her love for genealogical research and her publications. I remember, too, her generosity to a young Turkish man who traveled from the Logan Union to Sneedville to connect with Melungeon history. I’m sure she left him with a good impression of the area and the people. She was a friend to many, those near and far. I look back with delight on having known Johnnie and talking with her at Unions over the years. She was always genuine and generous.

Scott Withrow

I became acquainted with Johnnie after the first MHA union.  A very close friendship developed from then on thru  the years.  When I first visited Johnnie in her home, I was amazed of all the valuable books, manuscripts, and records she had accumulated.

She later located my 4th generation family and sent me down the road of discovery.  Her extensive knowledge of the families in that area was as if you were reading in an encyclopedia.

Her kindness, compassion and beautiful, gentle spirit will always hold a special place in my life.  She is a giant in my admiration for her and her accomplishments.  She was genuine, one of my best friends.  We had weekly telephone visits and always ended our conversation with “I love you”, so dear friend I say once more “I love you”

Shirley & Chuck Hutsell

16th Union Report

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(Johnnie Rhea and Rose Trent at 16th Union– photo courtesy of Julie Williams Dixon)

16th Union at the Southwest Virginia Historical Museum State Park

Report by K. Paul Johnson

Every Melungeon Union combines an extended family reunion with a scholarly conference featuring authors and researchers sharing the latest perspectives on our heritage.  All presenters come at their own expense, as volunteers receiving no compensation or travel costs, as do MHA members who organize and direct the conference.  We travel considerable distances to attend this annual event, to learn and celebrate this heritage we share and treasure.

New this year at 16th Union was a preconference free and open to the public on Friday, June 29th called “Discover Your Melungeon Heritage” and featuring Johnnie Gibson Rhea, Phyllis Morefield, Phyllis Starnes, and me (KPJ).  The Museum Parlor in which we met had 50 seats, and 10 more had to be brought in to handle the crowd.  This while some were outside at the book table and registration tent, so overall Friday attendance was much higher than the 40 or so typical of recent years.  However, the most extreme weather in a long time caused attendance to decline Saturday rather than increase as in past experience, as the event had been advertised as occurring outdoors on the lawn, and temperatures were well over 100 in Wise County by afternoon.  45 or so conferees fit comfortably indoors in the air conditioning and enjoyed some very colorful stories about Appalachian communities – true and fictional—throughout the Saturday presentations.  And some continued to be working outdoors even in the grueling heat Saturday, most notably MHA President S.J. Arthur and Registrar Jim Morefield.

No one represents Melungeon heritage in quite the way that Johnnie Gibson Rhea does, since she is a native Virginian who has spent almost all her life in Tennessee and is known and loved by Melungeons in both states.  Johnnie welcoming the conferees with stories of her family heritage on Newman’s Ridge, as a Gibson, Collins, and Goins descendant, set the tone for an informal and fun afternoon of genealogical explorations. With Claude Collins and Rose Trent, who organized the reception following the preconference, Johnnie made everyone feel a warm welcome to match the temperatures.

Phyllis Morefield had a cornucopia of news about online genealogical research, thanks to her recent work as a volunteer at the MHA booth in Cincinnati where the National Genealogical Society was holding its annual conference. MHA thanks Phyllis both for her hard work in Cincinnati and Big Stone Gap and for the entertaining presentation in which she shared tips and stories about genealogical research.

My presentation on links between Pell Mellers and Melungeons began with family stories, examined genealogical evidence, and concluded with a description of DNA testing and its mixed results in answering historical questions about my own mixed ancestry.  This was intended as a preview of the keynote address, since my genealogical quest centered on the same county in North Carolina, Bertie, about which Dr. Smallwood had written a book in 2002 and which continues to be a research focus for him.

Phyllis Starnes spoke informally about the promises and pitfalls of genetic testing for genealogical research, helping us through the labyrinth of Y-DNA, mitochondrial, and autosomal studies of Melungeons. We owe Phyllis thanks for generating more questions in the q&a than the rest of us combined, and for answering them deftly and capably.

Arwin D. Smallwood, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Colonial American History at the University of Memphis, was the keynote speaker at 13th Union in 2009, and has been a presenter in every subsequent Union, returning this year at 16th to give a keynote address that featured new dimensions of the research he has been pursuing for several years on the Tuscarora tribe’s diaspora from his native Bertie County.  This year Dr. Smallwood included a detailed accounting of Virginia’s legal oppression of people of color, a tightening noose of restrictions throughout the seventeenth century and into the eighteenth.  This becomes a factor in the migration of African-European mixed families southward into North Carolina and westward into mountainous regions of Virginia, away from the plantations and slavery and into frontier communities where they interblended with Indians who had likewise been displaced.  MHA is indebted to Dr. Smallwood for his ongoing work which tends to incorporate the traditionally-accepted triracial explanation of Melungeon origins with the more exotic possibilities of Mediterranean ancestry suggested by folklore. He was extensively interviewed by a local newspaper reporter so we look forward to seeing the coverage.

Dr. Terry Mullins opened the Saturday proceedings with a perspective on Appalachian community histories from an author who has made many contributions in this field.  His doctoral dissertation, on Bishop Virginia/West Virginia, was published by Overmountain press in 1996, and he has since coauthored photographic histories of Tazewell County, Virginia and of four communities within that county: Tazewell (2006), Burke’s Garden (2007), Jewell Ridge (2008), and Bluefield (2009).  Hidden Histories of Tazewell County (2010) was edited by Dr. Mullins. He also discussed the experience of writing a church history for Pisgah UMC in 1993, and being recently commissioned to write histories of two smaller Southwest Virginia communities. MHA owes thanks to Terry for his children’s book Melungeons Out of the Dungeon and for all his work bringing the Melungeon story to Appalachian community history.

The photo of Wayne Winkler in the current Coalfield Progress is testimony to his courage in being the only speaker to give his presentation outdoors under a tent, as advertised.  Although he spoke in fiery heat, the morning after an incredibly stormy night across the region, there were no “firestorms” of controversy.  Most of his talk was devoted to explaining how Melungeons have been misunderstood and mythologized in traditionally-cited primary sources. But in the final third, he delved into the recent publicity about Melungeon DNA, which he had discussed in a radio interview just before coming to 16th Union. Phyllis Starnes had prepared the conferees on Friday afternoon to distinguish between three aspects of recent discussions of Melungeon DNA.  The lab results, and the study itself, are matters of objective fact that is indisputable; the interpretation in this or any report is necessarily tinged with subjective bias; the soundbites conveyed by the media confuse and distort both the study and the report.

Wayne followed up on the DNA issue by explaining that the negative spin of the recent AP story and especially the headlines were not intended by the report authors.  Yet the headlines were undeniably negative– in that our Native American and Mediterranean ancestry were allegedly disproven and relegated to the status of racist mythology—more than positive about what was proven.  After all, the study authors selected “a multi-ethnic population” as a subtitle, and not “mulatto wannabe Indians” which nonetheless has been the stereotypical insult applied to Melungeons in the wake of the AP story.  Conferees were left feeling that the air had been cleared of some misunderstandings and hard feelings.  What the study  does prove beyond dispute is the subsaharan African Y DNA lineage of many families of the Newman’s Ridge Melungeon community.  But by its very nature, such a study cannot disprove the triracial status of Melungeons in general—which has been unanimously attested by generations of social scientists as well as testimony of Melungeons themselves. Mediterranean ancestry was repeatedly claimed by 19th century Melungeons in addition to Native American, English, and African ancestry, and not as a cover story to deny the triracial foundations of their communities. In his closing remarks, Wayne stated clearly that nothing in any DNA evidence conflicts with the triracial-and-beyond understanding of Melungeons presented in Dr. Smallwood’s keynote address the night before.

Since 1998, the Melungeon Heritage Association has been claiming and celebrating the full multi-ethnicity of our extended kinship network.  We thank Wayne Winkler for his presentation at 16th Union, handling a situation rife with confusion and controversy in a way that brought greater understanding of all the nuances and complexities involved.

Lisa Alther’s presentation combined two books published in the past year, both set in southern Appalachia and depicting communities on the margins of so-called civilization. Washed in the Blood, Alther’s eighth novel but the first on Melungeons, was published by Mercer University Press in late 2011.  It was the topic of a preview at 15th Union in Swannanoa last summer, but now that the book is available Lisa graciously agreed to devote half her presentation to it at 16th Union, before discussing her hugely successful new non-fiction study of the Hatfield-McCoy feud.

Couchtown, Virginia, the fictional setting of most of Washed in the Blood, is located some distance east of Big Stone Gap, but its story will be recognizable to MHA readers even though the word Melungeon never appears. (Alther explained that the characters would not have used the word so it had no place in the novel.) The Tug Fork Valley, some distance north of Big Stone Gap, is the historical setting for Blood Feud, and once again Alther painstaking and lovingly recreates an Appalachian community of the past that has been shrouded in myth and mystery.

Readers are indebted to Lisa for her sensitive, humorous, compassionate rendering of Melungeon history, both in her novel and her earlier non-fiction book Kinfolks. (2007)  MHA congratulates her on the immediate bestseller status of Blood Feud, testimony to her skill in bringing narrative techniques from fiction to make history come to life.

Sharon Ewing, museum director and park manager, opened our final Saturday afternoon session with a narrated presentation of slides depicting the history of Big Stone Gap. Her 2008 Arcadia book Big Stone Gap from the series Images of America: Virginia was the source of photos, and Sharon’s humorous account of various figures in the town’s history gave the conferees a better feel for the community which was so welcoming to us.

MHA’s gratitude to Sharon extends beyond her lively presentation. Since January, she and chief ranger Aaron Davis have provided great assistance to our planning process for 16th Union.  During the event, they were constantly supportive and available to us, assisted by seven young (high school student) volunteers from the Youth Conservation Corps, the museum staff, and Ariel, another volunteer with several years of experience with the Museum, now a college student.  They helped us with book sales, equipment setup, all the errands that arise at the last minute, and all cheerfully despite the extreme conditions outdoors.  Aaron Davis deserves a special word of thanks for his early warning of the Derecho that was heading towards southwest Virginia, giving us plenty of time to reach our motel rooms to watch TV coverage of the massive storm that barely missed Wise County but devastated some of our hometowns across West Virginia and Virginia.

The hospitality of the museum and the town, and the satisfaction of MHA conferees with the setting, were such that we were left wondering, not whether to return for a future Union—but when, and how regularly thereafter.  A member survey was taken at 16th Union which will help the board plan 17th and 18th Union venues and dates well in advance.

One unplanned quality of 16th Union was the escalating laughter from conferees as speakers brought out the humorous angles on their subject matter. Dr. Kathy Lyday-Lee took on a very serious topic, the stereotyping of Melungeons and Appalachian people in literature, with a light touch that suggested that the proper way to respond to such stereotypes is to laugh at them. (But also to understand them.)  Lisa Alther had mentioned the subject of Appalachian stereotypes arising from the Hatfield/McCoy feud.  As a scholar of Appalachian literature, Kathy carried this thread forward with a look at literary depictions of Melungeons, from Will Allen Dromgoole through Mildred Haun and Jesse Stuart to contemporary authors.  Sometimes stereotypical traits are put to good use in novels, for example the six-fingered Melungeons of Alther’s work. But more often the mysterious, tragic, half-wild portrayal of Melungeons has conveyed negative messages. The surprise ending of Kathy’s presentation was her description of a new novel by Alex Bledsoe, The Hum and the Shiver, set in Needsville, home of the mysterious dark Tufa people who are able to fly when conditions are just right—the “hum.” Detail after detail made it clear that Melungeons and Hancock County were the model for this fantasy novel, announced as first of a series.  We were left eagerly awaiting her forthcoming review of this fantasy retelling of the Melungeon story, after hearing her discuss its use of stereotypes.  MHA thanks Dr. Lyday-Lee for bringing her expertise in literary history to the topic of Melungeon myth vs. reality, and for handling a sensitive issue in a way that engulfed the room in laughter again and again.

The finale of 16th Union brought us full circle from our last celebration in Big Stone Gap in 2007.  The big news that year at 11th Union was the debut of Melungeon Voices, Julie Williams Dixon’s documentary film which was seven years in the making. Julie returned to her native county, which largely inspired the quest behind Melungeon Voices, after five years in which the film has won several awards, been shown to audiences throughout the eastern and southern US, and been a huge hit at National Genealogical Society conferences in Raleigh (2009) and Charleston (2011.)  This year Julie returned to Big Stone Gap and opened her presentation with a selection of outtakes from Melungeon Voices, raw footage of interviews from ten years ago that included three Melungeons attending 16th Union: Claude Collins, Johnnie Rhea, and Wayne Winkler. Interviews with them and others brought out colorful details of Appalachian community life in the days before modern conveniences. Conferees were delighted with this look behind the scenes of a documentary that has been warmly embraced by the Melungeon community.

16th Union closed with a showing of a new documentary for which Julie was the co-writer, Birth of a Colony: North Carolina.  The film, which debuted in October 2011 on North Carolina Public TV, depicts the impact on Native Americans of successive waves of European settlers and armies who arrived in what is now North Carolina from first contact through the Tuscarora Wars.   Julie was responsible for the interviews with scholarly experts on the period, all of whom were excellent, and none more eloquent on the Indians of the Carolina coast than 16th Union keynote speaker Dr. Arwin Smallwood.  The term “pre-Melungeon” occurred to me after viewing Birth of a Colony and reading Washed in the Blood.  Both works provide essential background knowledge of the historical conditions in which the blending of European, African, and Indian cultures and DNA occurred that led to all the “triracial isolates” including Melungeons.

MHA thanks Julie for once again bringing her passion for historical research and her love of filmmaking to Melungeon viewers, who are perhaps uniquely qualified to appreciate the labor of love in Melungeon Voices and the historical depth and breadth ofBirth of a Colony.

17th Union Report

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The 17th Melungeon Union was the best attended in six years, with more than fifty MHA members on the first day and more than seventy in attendance on Saturday to see the new documentary. The Wytheville Meeting Center was a commodious and welcoming venue for both the smaller conference on Friday and the film showing the next day.

Friday morning opened with Dr. Terry Mullins of Concord University presenting “Cultural Diversity Comes Home,” an introduction to Melungeons that he has been invited to give to several scholarly and general audiences. This was followed first by a panel consisting of MHA Vice President Scott Withrow, Elon University professor Kathy Lyday, and MHA Treasurer Phyllis Morefield. A new fantasy novel series by Alex Bledsoe provided the springboard for a discussion by Kathy and Scott of how Melungeons are perceived and misrepresented in popular culture, followed by remarks by Phyllis on finding Melungeon ancestry through genealogical research. The next panel consisted of Stacy Webb, Jeanne Bornefield, and me (KPJ), discussing “Melungeon Geography.” I opened with a presentation on the current distribution of Melungeons in the United States, compared to that of the Goins family. I announced plans for a 2015 collection from Backintyme Publications entitled The Goinses, tracing this family from the Carolina/Virginia coast through Appalachia into the Deep South and Midwest, to be co-edited by Stacy Webb and me. Stacy followed with a discussion of historic migration patterns of triracial peoples and the legal pressures that compelled their mobility in the 19th century. Jeanne concluded by introducing a new initiative to compile county-level genealogical contact information for mixed ancestry researchers, and discussed her Indiana research.

Following lunch, we had a lengthy informal period for chats on family and local history and then heard Beth Hirschman deliver what amounted to a keynote address on “Becoming Melungeon.” She proposed a model for the process based on the “stages of acceptance” associated with grief. First, we deny mixed ancestry in our own family lines; then accept it reluctantly and resentfully; and finally progress toward willing acceptance, embracing and celebrating our full heritage. Beth gave a humorous account of coming to terms with the fact that her forebears included no royalty or people of great wealth, but did include a great many despised ethnic minorities. The Friday session closed with the MHA annual meeting, followed by a period honoring Johnnie Gibson Rhea, who recently was featured in a public radio documentary about Melungeon DNA, some of which had been recorded at 16th Union.

The Saturday morning session opened with an address by MHA President S.J. Arthur on issues of identity for 21st century Melungeons and Melungeon descendants. SJ discussed different standards applied to self-identification as Melungeon contrasted with other ethnic groups, and the historical factors that prevented such self-identity until the emergence of the modern Melungeon movement. Manuel Mira followed with a discussion of his Portuguese heritage and long-term interest in Melungeon research. Wayne Winkler concluded the Saturday morning session with a masterful multimedia examination of 19thcentury primary sources on Melungeons and their many biases and distortions.

The climax and conclusion of the Union was a showing of The Melungeons of Vardy Valley. A panel composed of interviewees Claude Collins, DruAnna Williams Overbay, and Troy Williams was moderated by filmmaker Ian Cheney and complemented by co-producers Marilyn Cheney and Todd Beckham. The beautiful and moving documentary stimulated many questions and favorable comments from conferees. At the close of the Union, Claude Collins invited everyone to join MHA and the Vardy Community Historical Society for 18th Union, to be celebrated in Vardy, TN and Big Stone Gap, VA.